The incidence of jaundice is higher in early childhood. Jaundice is a characteristic cause of liver disease. Ducts carry bile from the liver into the gallbladder and then, into the small intestine. Blockage of any of the ducts can occur at several levels of the biliary system, leading to biliary obstruction. Causes are associated to intra-hepatic cholestasis or extra-hepatic biliary obstruction.
Malignant diseases of obstructive jaundice include cholangiocarcinoma, Klastin tumour, carcinomas of the: pancreatic head, duodenum, Ampulla of Vater, gallbladder and lymph nodes at the porta. Benign diseases are biliary stricture, choledochal cyst, stenosis of the papilla, Mirizzi’s syndrome and extra-hepatic biliary atresia.
CBD exploration: After the exploration of the common bile duct (CBD), cholecystectomy is accomplished. Routine cystic duct cholangiography is conducted along with pre-exploratory size of the stones and their location.
Extra-hepatic biliary atresia: There are three different types – atresia of the CBD, common hepatic duct and right and left ducts. A pre-operative percutaneous liver biopsy is done and a resection of the biliary tract is done thereafter. A Roux-en-Y loop is conducted as reconstructive surgery.
Ampullary tumours: Small tumours <2 cm are excised locally. These usually arise from the Ampulla of Vater or biliary duct. Follow-up endoscopy is essential in about 6 months, post-operatively.
Choledocholithiasis surgery: Several midline incisions are made. The peritoneum is opened and adhesions are divided. First, the liver is retracted upwards. Then. the colon and duodenum are retracted downwards. The peritoneal fold is incised and a blunt dissection defines the CBD and the cystic duct. An intra-operative cholangiography is carried out and the cystic duct is ligated and cut.